The famous painting of the legendary 17th-century Spanish artist Diego Velazquez entitled “Surrender of Delirium” was painted by him in 1635 based on real historical events that took place in Europe during his life. The painting itself was intended for the so-called Great Hall of the new palace of King Philip IV Buen Retiro, who ruled Spain in those days.
The plot of the picture was completely built on historical events, and the actions unfolding on it were connected with the situation around the fortress of Breda, which was located in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It was in this city that the famous compromise was signed over the protest against the religious persecution of King Philip II, who was accused, in fact, of blasphemy.
It was the fortress of Breda that was the center of the struggle of the armies of many European countries for dominance in the region during the so-called Thirty Years War, which lasted from 1618 to 1648. During all this time, until the accession to the throne of Spain by King Philip IV, Breda changed hands several times during the hostilities.
It was in the first years of the Thirty Years War that the Spanish troops who fought against the army of the Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands managed to achieve quite serious successes, as a result of which a very large number of Dutch territories went to Spain. In addition, after that, Spain successfully opposed its other opponents, including the British and Portuguese.
The painting depicts an important moment of handing over the keys to the fortress of Breda to the Spanish Commander-in-Chief Ambrosio Spinola, who was able to achieve such stunning successes for his country. Although, after a short period of time, Spain was weakened by the war economically, and she had to give up a number of her conquests, including in the Netherlands.